Cold Flow Additives

Pour point, paraffin dispersant and low temperature operability

Residual and distillate-based marine fuels contain saturated, straight chain n-paraffins commonly referred to as paraffin wax. As the temperature of fuel oil is lowered, these n-paraffins start to crystallize and precipitate out of solution as wax crystals with carbon numbers ranging from C10 up to C100.

Once out of solution, these wax crystals begin to agglomerate, interlock together and grow larger in size, negatively impacting the flow behavior of the fuel and contributing to a variety of storage, distribution, and operational issues.

 Common paraffin related issues in the field include:

  • Wax settling out of fuel during storage
  • Wax diffusing out of fuel and adhering to the inner walls of transfer lines during distribution resulting in fouling and a loss of throughput,
  • Increased viscosity as the fuel begins to gel, including solidification after the fuel reaches its pour point.
  • Once inside the fuel system, paraffin wax can plug fuel filters, which diminishes the flow of fuel to the engine and adversely affects operational efficiency.

Additionally, paraffins can interact with asphaltenes that are also present in fuel oil which can lead to asphaltene destabilization and increase the potential for, and the severity of, system fouling.

Heating fuel above its wax crystallization temperature (WAT) or blending with a diluent such as kerosene are possible solutions to mitigate the negative effects of paraffin wax formation. However, these options are often cost prohibitive or simply not practical in the field. In the case of residual-based oils, longer chain paraffin waxes can stay crystalline at temperatures far above the temperature capacity of most storage and bunkering tanks. Therefore, a more cost-effective solution is to use a Trident cold flow and paraffin inhibitor additive from Innospec.

Innospec offers a variety of cold flow improvers and paraffin inhibitors to meet the demands of the ever-changing bunker fuel market. Please contact your Innospec representative to discuss how we can custom tailor a solution for your needs.

Innospec’s Trident 300 Cold Flow Additive

Trident 300 is a bunker fuel cold flow additive specifically designed to modify wax crystal formation and inhibit paraffin growth in heavy oil streams (e.g., crude oils, gas oils and residuals) and marine fuel oils such as MDO, MGO, VLSFO and HSFO.


  • Effectively lowers the pour point by reducing gelation
  • Improves system throughput by inhibiting wax deposition in pipelines and transfer lines
  • Improves low temperature fuel viscosity and pumpability
  • Improves storage stability by reducing wax settling and sedimentation
  • Continuous use reduces wax agglomeration resulting in reduced filter plugging, better fuel handling and enhanced fuel system performance